The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is part of the United Nations System as the leading inter-governmental organization promoting since 1951 humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all, with 174 member states and presence in over 100 countries. IOM works on migration and development, facilitating migration, regulating migration and solutions for forced migration.
- EVALUATION CONTEXT
- Political, Environmental, and Socio-economic Context:
Iraq’s security situation and development outlook improved dramatically following the defeat of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) on Iraqi territory in 2017. Since 2018, the GoI has been advancing the closure of Internally Displaced Person (IDP) camps throughout the country, resulting in a series of camp closures in 2018, late 2019 and again beginning in , which led to the eviction of hundreds of thousands of IDPs, including almost 50,000 since e time, an estimated 1.18 million Iraqis still remain displaced in camps, informal settlements and other out-of-camp locations. IDPs in camps and informal settlements commonly face complex challenges and barriers to the resolution of their displacement, including tribal issues and security problems in areas of origin, perceived affiliation with ISIL, as well as issues related to destroyed housing, lack of access to employment, lack of basic services and other issues.
Setbacks encountered in 2020 related to the COVID-19 pandemic, economic challenges resulting from instability (internal, regional, and global), have created further obstacles to both IDPs return to areas of origin or local integration in their host communities as well as successful reintegration of returnees in their areas of origin.
Subsequent overall recovery, however, has been slow as the Government of Iraq (GoI) has confronted the task of creating opportunities for durable solutions for IDPs, returnees and the wider population through re-establishing access to basic services and address barriers to return
In addition to internal displacement in conflict-affected areas of Iraq, population groups in the south of Iraq continue to face challenges linked to the increasingly limited supply of water that risk their stability and threaten to create additional internal displacement or drive rural-urban migration. (more…)